The most important syntactic terms-Part one

The most important syntactic terms-Part one

terms in syntax

1-Active sentence 

A sentence in which the NP with the agent role is the subject

Ex: Helen painted the room.

2-Adjective (A)

 A lexical category that designates a property that is applicable to the
entities named by nouns, can often take comparative and superlative endings in English, and
functions as the head of an adjective phrase

Ex: red, hearty.

3-Adverb (Adv) 

A lexical category that typically names properties that can be applied to
the actions designated by verbs

Ex: quickly,fearfully.


The thematic role of the doer of an action

Ex:  Marilyn in (Marilyn fed the dolphin).

5-Auxiliary verb (Aux) 

A verb that serves as the specifier of the main verb  
Ex: was in ( was talking).


A syntactic constituent that provides information about entities and
locations implied by the meaning of the head.

7-Complement clause

A sentence-like construction that is embedded within a larger
Ex: that his car had been totalled in ( ferry told Mary that his car had been totalled).


A functional category that joins two or more categories of the
same type, forming a coordinate structure
Ex: and in (a man and his dog)



One or more words that make up a syntactic unit 
EX: the apple in (the apple fell onto the floor).

10-Coordinate structure

A phrase that is formed by joining two (or more) categories
of the same type with a conjunction such as and or or
Ex: (those men and that woman).

11-Coordinate Structure Constraint

A constraint on transformations that
does not allow an element to be removed from a coordinate structure.

12-Coordination test 

A test used to determine if a group of words is a constituent by
joining it to another group of words with a conjunction such as and or or.

13-Deep structure 

 The structure generated by the phrase structure rules in accordance
with the subcategorization properties of the heads.

14-Degree Word (Deg)

A functional category that serves as a specifier of a
preposition or an adjective
Ex: quite in (quite tired), very in ( very near the house).

15-Determiner (Det) 

A functional category that serves as a specifier of a noun
Ex: (a,the,these).

16-Direct object 

The NP complement of a verb
Ex: a fish in (fady caught a fish).

17-Head (of a phrase)

The lexical category around which a phrasal category is built
Ex: (V is head of VP, N is head of NP, A of AP, P of PP).

18-Head (of a word)

The morpheme that determines the category of the entire word
Ex: bird in( blackbird).


A transformation that moves Aux from its position within the VP to a position
in front of the subject, formulated as:Move Aux to C.


A constituent that does not permit extraction of a component part
Ex: a coordinated phrase like ferry and Pam).

21-Lexical category 

The word-level syntactic categories noun (N), verb (V), adjective
(A), and preposition (P).


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